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The e-bulletin provides summaries of the latest and most relevant publications within the field. Alongside new publications we link back to publications ‘from the archive’ to provide subscribers with an interesting collection of reading material. These summaries are a useful snap-shot of current research related to employer engagement in education. The e-bulletin is international in scope but has a predominantly UK focus.
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This is an email of the Education and Employers Taskforce Research Mailgroup. In this message:
Events, Publications, New Summaries, Resources and From the Archive
- Event: Youth Employment Convention – London, November 24 2015
- Publication: PTM Marope, B Chakroun and KP Holmes, ‘Unleashing the Potential, Transforming Technical and Vocational Education and Training’
- Publication: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Ethnicity, Poverty and Youth Employment: Improving Outcomes for Young People
- Publication: Peter Davies and Amanda Hughes, ‘Defining and Assessing Enterprise Capability in Schools’
- Publication: The Sutton Trust, Levels of Success: The Potential of UK Apprenticeships
- Publication: Katie M Lawsona, Ann C Crouterb and Susan M McHaleb, ‘Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood’
- Publication: M Verbruggena et al, ‘Does Early-Career Underemployment Impact Future Career Success? A Path Dependency Perspective’
- Publication: Dana Vertsberger and Itamar Gati, ‘The Effectiveness of Sources of Support in Career Decision-Making: A Two-Year Follow-Up’
- Publication: Emmanuelle Vignoli, ‘Career Indecision and Career Exploration among Older French Adolescents: The Specific Role of General Trait Anxiety and Future School and Career Anxiety’
- Publication: Davina Potts, ‘Understanding the Early Career Benefits of Learning Abroad Programs’
- Summary: Frank Linnehan, ‘The Relation of Source Credibility and Message Frequency to Program Evaluation and Self-Confidence of Students in a Job Shadowing Program’
- Summary: Gloria Porter, Pamela Edwards and Bradi Granger, ‘Stagnant Perceptions of Nursing Among High School Students: Results of a Shadowing Intervention Study’
- Resource: Seminar Slides – Anthony Mann
- Resource: Seminar Slides – Hugh Lauder
- Resource: Video: Tristram Hooley’s Inaugural Lecture
- From the Archive: Education and Employers, Work Experience: Impact and Delivery – Insights from the Evidence (April 2012)
Youth Employment Convention: London, November 24 2015
The event is aimed at decision makers keen to hear from key opinion formers, deliverers of services to young people and young people themselves. Young people in the UK are more likely than other groups to be employed on non-standard employment contracts and those without qualifications are at risk of being left behind. Addressing these issues now will lead to a significant and positive impact for young people, their communities and the prosperity of the UK’s labour market. The conference is managed by Inclusion in strategic partnership with the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) and Convention partners the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP). More about the Convention can be viewed online and read our latest blog.
PTM Marope, B Chakroun and KP Holmes, ‘Unleashing the Potential, Transforming Technical and Vocational Education and Training’, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Education on the Move Paper (Paris, 2015)
This book, which is the third in the Education on the Move series from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, explores technical and vocational education and training (TVET). It begins by looking at the contextual drivers for TVET including demographic changes, global education policies, migration patterns, labour market trends, and technological advances. Subsequent chapters explore: contextual responsiveness of TVET in terms of policies and politics to support economic growth, promote social equity and enhance the sustainability of development; strengthening TVET systems’ capabilities through, for example, expanding work-based learning and cooperation with business; using an analytical approach for transforming TVET systems; and looking at the enablers of transformation such as partnership working and knowledge sharing. Find the full publication here.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Ethnicity, Poverty and Youth Employment: Improving Outcomes for Young People (October 2015)
This research looks at the school-to-work transitions of young people, filling a gap in understanding about the experiences of young Britons from ethnic minority backgrounds. Two papers have been published concurrently by JRF: the first looks at the relationship between ethnicity and labour market disadvantage; and the second presents in-depth case studies of best practice in some local authorities that are addressing the dual problems of unemployment and over-qualification of young people from ethnic minority backgrounds.
In the first publication, the research finds that youth unemployment is much higher among several ethnic minority groups than it is in the majority White population, and has been for many years. In 2013, young people from Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi families were more than twice as likely to be unemployed as people from White backgrounds (45-47% compared to 18%). The research also found that apprenticeships are not working as effectively for young people from some ethnic minority groups, particularly for young black people as there was a 10 percentage point gap in achievement between young black people and the average achievement rate. Suggested reasons for the relationship between ethnicity and labour market disadvantage are differences in social background, the use of social networks, geographical location and sometimes discrimination. One important way in which to address this disadvantage is through careers advice and guidance, to support diversity and equality in the labour market and to help to ensure that young people’s early labour market choices are not dependent on the jobs done by their friends and family. Furthermore, the authors suggest that employers and employer groups should show leadership in promoting fair recruitment, equalities training and mentoring to help those from under-represented groups to get jobs and progress in them.
The second publication, looks at best practice case studies of local authorities in Bristol, Nottingham and Tower Hamlets and recommends that local authorities can make progress in three areas: encourage employers to recruit a more diverse workforce; work with employers and young people to broker opportunities; and provide tailored support for ethnic minority young people. Tailored schemes designed to support disadvantaged youth into the labour market should be driven by data gathered on participants by ethnicity and employment outcomes. Find more about this research here.
Peter Davies and Amanda Hughes, ‘Defining and Assessing Enterprise Capability in Schools’ Journal of Education and Work 28:5 (2015)
This paper describes the development of an instrument for assessing enterprise capability in UK schools. The approach to assessing enterprise capability builds on previous work by including three dimensions: self-efficacy, aspirations, and knowledge and awareness. The authors find significant but weak associations between these three constructs suggesting that, whilst they can be considered as providing a coherent description of enterprise capability they can also be regarded as distinct dimensions. The instrument also distinguishes between aspiration towards not-for-profit and for-profit enterprise and also between self-efficacy towards two broad enterprise capabilities: project planning; working with people and information and two specific, market related capabilities; market risk; and price and profit. The authors found only modest associations between students’ sense of enterpriser self-efficacy and their enterprise knowledge and awareness. Find the full article here.
Philip Kirby. Levels of Success: The Potential of UK Apprenticeships. The Sutton Trust. (October 2015)
This research compares the earning potential of UK apprenticeships and university degrees. It finds that the very best apprenticeships (level 5) result in greater lifetime earning potential than degrees from non-Russell Group universities. However, there are not enough of these apprenticeships, with the most being at level 2 (GCSE equivalent) or level 3 (A Level equivalent) standard. Furthermore, there are key demographic factors associated with those who populate level 5 apprenticeships which calls into question how successful apprenticeships are as a vehicle for social mobility: they are populated by the wealthiest cohorts who are more likely to have been prepared for them by their schools; there is a sharp gender divide in apprenticeships, for example engineering apprenticeships are male-dominated and beauty apprenticeships are female-dominated; and under a third of apprenticeships are populated by those younger than 19 whereas over a third are populated by those aged 25 and over. The authors argue, therefore, that the apprenticeship system is in need of reform, not least because there is still a culture within the UK where parents and teachers are more likely to favour university degrees over apprenticeships. Find the full publication here.
Katie M Lawsona, Ann C Crouterb and Susan M McHaleb, ‘Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood’ Journal of Vocational Behaviour 90 (October 2015) pp.26-35
Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and maths – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This US study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialisation experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialisation experiences (~ 10 years old) and occupational attainment (~ 26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialisation experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labour market. Find the full article here.
M Verbruggen et al, ‘Does Early-Career Underemployment Impact Future Career Success? A Path Dependency Perspective’ Journal of Vocational Behaviour 90 (October 2015) pp.101-110
Whereas many studies have shown that underemployed people experience lower objective career success and lower subjective career success while being underemployed, little research has been done on the lasting effects of underemployment. This study addresses the role of time in career success research by examining the impact of level underemployment, content underemployment and contingent employment on subsequent objective (i.e. salary) and subjective career success (i.e. job satisfaction). The authors used a 10-year longitudinal dataset of 335 Dutch university graduates to examine the impact of preceding underemployment as well as the specific timing of the underemployment in a person’s career. The multilevel analysis results illustrate that level and contingent underemployment have a negative impact on future pay, whereas content underemployment negatively affects job satisfaction five years later. In addition, for level underemployment, timing matters suggesting that the signal that it sends to employers may differ depending on when in one’s career it happened. Taken together, these findings point to the importance of using a path-dependency perspective when trying to understand people’s career success. Find the full article here.
Dana Vertsberger and Itamar Gati, ‘The Effectiveness of Sources of Support in Career Decision-Making: A Two-Year Follow-Up’ Journal of Vocational Behaviour 89 (August 2015) pp.151-161
Making career decisions is often difficult and challenging, and one way to advance in the process is to seek help. This research focused on the various sources of support young adults tend to look for when making their career decision and the factors that affect their actual use of these sources. The first study involved 1071 young adults (ages 18–35) in the United States who had already chosen their major(s) at a university and who self-reported their help-seeking behaviour and the Career Decision-Making Profile (CDMP). The young adults used sources that were easily accessible, even when they were perceived as being less effective. Additionally, those with less career decision-making adaptability, as derived from the CDMP, tended to seek help more often. The second study, a two-year follow-up of 296 young adults who participated in the first study, revealed that getting help reduced the likelihood of changing one’s major. Find the full article here.
Emmanuelle Vignoli, ‘Career Indecision and Career Exploration among Older French Adolescents: The Specific Role of General Trait Anxiety and Future School and Career Anxiety’ Journal of Vocational Behaviour 89 (August 2015) pp.182-191
This study examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent anxiety: career exploration and career indecision. The discussion focuses on the role of anxiety (personality trait anxiety or an emotion connected to one’s future) in career development. A questionnaire was filled out by 242 French senior high school students to measure career indecision, frequency of career exploration, general trait anxiety, and fear of failing in one’s academic and occupational careers. The results showed that adolescent career indecision and career exploration were positively and significantly related to general trait anxiety and career anxiety. Career anxiety explained some variance in career exploration more than in career indecision and general trait anxiety explained some variance in career indecision only. The authors address the implications of these results for improving counselling practices. Find the full article here.
Davina Potts, ‘Understanding the Early Career Benefits of Learning Abroad Programs’ Journal of Studies in International Education 19:5 (November 2015) pp. 441-459
European and U.S. institutions have promoted the value of a learning abroad experience for many years. As Australian higher education institutions have adopted policies and strategies to increase participation in learning abroad, with employability as a central argument, it is important to study this claim. This article examines the links between a learning abroad experience and early career benefits for recent graduates from Australian higher education, with an exploratory consideration of various conditions that may promote working for an international organisation. Participation in multiple learning abroad programs emerged as an important variable. Participants reported a high level of benefit from their learning abroad experience in relation to the early stages of their career. Although employability skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork skills, and problem solving and analytical skills were rated as the greatest perceived benefits, career-related benefits such as future career prospects and increased motivation and passion for their chosen career direction were also identified. Although the study is set within the Australian higher education and graduate employment context, it contributes to the growing body of literature on the value of learning abroad to participants, educational institutions, employers, and society in general. Find the full article here.
New Summaries on the Education and Employers website
Frank Linnehan, ‘The Relation of Source Credibility and Message Frequency to Program Evaluation and Self-Confidence of Students in a Job Shadowing Program’ Journal of Vocational Education Research 29:1 (2004)
This study explores the relationship between students and adults in the school and business environment during a US job shadowing programme. In particular, the credibility and message frequency of the adults who were being shadowed were analysed in relation to the perceptions of a sample of female high school students taking part in job shadowing. A key finding was the importance of the credibility of the adult, for example students were more likely to perceive programme participation as useful if adults had a high credibility with the students. Furthermore, student confidence in their abilities to be successful in a particular job were positively correlated with message frequency from these credible adults. Find the full summary here.
Gloria Porter, Pamela Edwards and Bradi Granger, ‘Stagnant Perceptions of Nursing Among High School Students: Results of a Shadowing Intervention Study’ Journal of Professional Nursing 25:4 (2009)
The recruitment and retention of nurses in the USA is problematic, in notable part due to the misperception of nursing as a career and high drop-out rates of nurses in their first couple of years. This study explores the perceptions of nursing from high school students in North Carolina to find that students experienced a positive shift in perceptions of nursing after job shadowing clinical professionals. Find the full summary here.
Seminar Slides: Anthony Mann on The Implications for Labour Market Change for Schools and Colleges
Slides are now available from Anthony Mann’s London seminar jointly hosted by Education and Employers Research and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills. The seminar focused on the detrimental consequences to young people of increasing structural changes in the UK labour market: growing complexity, fracturing of school to work transitions and changing employer demands – and it considered implications for schools and colleges engaged in curriculum review. Dr Anthony Mann spoke on the implications of labour market change for schools and colleges, presenting findings from a collaborative project with Professor Prue Huddleston (University of Warwick). The presentation drew on interviews with eight leading international commentators on structural labour market change (including Andreas Schleicher, and Professors Lorna Unwin, Chris Husbands and Hugh Lauder) and findings from four focus groups with UK recruiters. Find the presentation slides and more information on the seminar here.
Seminar Slides: Hugh Lauder on What is education for?
Slides are now available from Professor Hugh Lauder’s London seminar jointly hosted by by Education and Employers Research and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills. The seminar focused on changes in the international labour market and presented new data on the decaying relationship between qualification levels and earnings in the US and the UK. The seminar previews a new book (with ) entitled the The Death of Human Capital. Hugh Lauder is editor of the Journal of Education and Work, Professor of Education and Political Economy and Director of the Institute for Policy Research at the University of Bath. His works include Brown, P, Lauder, H, Ashton, D (2012) The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs and Incomes, Oxford University Press, New York; Lauder, H., et al (eds.)Educating for the Knowledge Economy: Critical Perspectives (2012) Lauder, H, Brown, P, Dillabough J-A and Halsey, A.H. (eds.) (2006) Education, Globalization and Social Change, Oxford, Oxford University Press; Brown, P, Green, A and Lauder, H., (2001). Hugh was a keynote speaker at the 2010 Education and Employers Research conference. Slides from the seminar are available on the Education and Employers Research seminar pages.
Video and slides: Tristram Hooley’s Inaugural Lecture
Tristram Hooley’s inaugural lecture as Professor of Career Education at the University of Derby, entitled Emancipate Yourselves from Mental Slavery: Self-Actualisation, Social Justice and the Politics of Career Education is now available online here.
From the Archive
Education and Employers, Work Experience: Impact and Delivery – Insights from the Evidence (April 2012)
This report presents findings from on Work Experience (wherein young people typically between the ages 14 to 18 spend 1 to 2 weeks in a workplace undertaking work-related tasks and duties). The report explores the value of work experience to young people within the contexts of: clarifying career aspirations, getting into university, academic attainment and employment. It also examines the quality of work experience, its potential use as a strategic tool for labour market amplification and the opportunities and obstacles it affords both young people and employers. In addition to presents findings from literature, new and existing perceptions data, the report includes write up from focus groups with British teenagers reflecting on their own experiences of work experience. Find the report here.
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Dr Anthony Mann Director of Policy and Research